For birch, there exist many local recommendations (e.g. In pruning birch, clippers are recommended instead of pruning saws in order to avoid bark and stem damage. KENNEDY and D . they are both white-stemmed and usually monocormic trees, reaching a height of 20–30 m. However, they differ regarding the morphology of the leaves, twigs, branches, bark, seeds and catkin scales, as well as cell size and wood anatomy (Kujala, 1946; Johnsson, 1974; Bhat and Kärkkäinen, 1980; Jonsell, 2000) (Figure 1a–c). Fries, 1964). A true pioneer species which rapidly colonises open areas and supports over 300 species of insect. Successful methods for the vegetative propagation of birch by tissue culture are also available (Simola, 1985; Ryynänen and Ryynänen, 1986; Viherä-Aarnio and Velling, 2001). Severe damage is often caused in young birch plantations by mammalian herbivores, i.e. Man and the Biosphere Series, Unesco, Paris and The Parthenon Publishing Group, Kvistingsforsøk med furu, gran, osp, ask og eik, © Institute of Chartered Foresters, 2009. Because dense ground vegetation offers nutrition and shelter to voles, intensive site preparation and weed control are the most effective means to reduce vole populations and prevent vole damage. Read more about this product Country Reports. As regards height growth, the ability of birch to recover from moose browsing is considered good (Heikkilä and Raulo, 1987; Heikkilä et al., 1993). Cultivar. In Central Europe, birch can also regenerate in oak (Quercus robur L. or Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. The best forest sites for silver birch are sandy and silty till soils and fine sandy soils. Finnish Forest Research Institute, Sealing-off of pruned branch stumps of curly birch and subsequent spread of discolouration into the stemwood, Thinning intensity and growth of mixed spruce-birch stands on drained peatlands in Finland, Biomass functions for Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch in Finland. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) has a significant effect on birch regeneration in the northern reindeer management area (Helle, 2001). There are several risks of failure in natural regeneration. Betula pendula Betula pubescens Alnus glutinosa Silver birch Downy birch Alder. Birch is a typical pioneer tree species with rapid early growth. Despite this pattern, the stem form of silver birch is often relatively straight and slender (Heiskanen, 1957; Heräjärvi, 2001). A method for species identification, based on chemical properties of the bark, has been developed in Sweden (Lundgren et al., 1995). 1–483 + App. With increasing stand density, diameter growth decreases before height growth, resulting in a very slender stem form. Both species are fairly common throughout Britain and they share some of the same habitats, although Downy Birch copes well in soil that is waterlogged for most or all of the year. Silver birch can be grown either in pure stands or in mixed stands with other tree species. 400) and seed-borne (1200) plants is also a good option. In April male and female catkins occur on the same tree, and the leaves turn yellow from late summer into autumn. R. BROWN, D . ssp. Birches were pioneers in the march northwards of trees following the retreat of the polar ice cap at the end of the last Ice Age, about 8000 years ago. curly birch seedlings. European Union herbal monograph on Betula pendula Roth and/or Betula pubescens Ehrh. I Introduction, Taxonomic Index to the Maps 1–996, Maps 1–996, Self-thinning models for even-aged stands of, Models for Predicting Stand Development in MELA System, Effect of repeated harvesting on biomass production and sprouting of, Effects of competing vegetation and post-planting weed control on the mortality and growth of and damage caused by voles to, Effect of fertilization on the biomass production of coppiced mixed birch and willow stands on a cut-away peatland, Opbrengst tabellen voor belangrijke boomsorten in Nederland, Productivity of mixed stands of Norway spruce and birch affected by population dynamics: a model analysis, Restoration of former agricultural fields in Estonia: comparative growth of planted and naturally regenerated birch, Biomass equations for determining fractions of pendula and pubescent birches growing on abandoned farmland and some practical implications, Mixed stands in Nordic countries – a challenge for the future, Changes in stem taper for birch plants growing in tree shelters, Biomass production and allometric above- and below-ground relations for young birch stands planted at four spacings on abandoned farmland, Flora Nordica. carelica (Mercklin) Hämet-Ahti) is a variety of the silver birch, but curly grain is also occasionally observed in other tree species (such as downy birch, black and grey alder, mountain ash and aspen; pine and spruce) (Heikinheimo, 1951; Saarnijoki, 1961; Velling et al., 2000; Hagqvist and Mikkola, 2008). Photo: Erkki Oksanen. Growth and yield research on birch has been relatively active in Northern Europe, where numerous growth and yield models have been developed during the last decades. The range also extends southwards to … The stem number after thinning is ca. Large-scale production of genetically improved birch seed can be arranged effectively in polythene greenhouse seed orchards, and this has become a well-established profitable practice (Lepistö, 1973; Hagqvist, 1991; Stener and Werner, 1997; Ahtikoski, 2000). Competition from ground vegetation and the coppicing of other deciduous tree species are the most important factors preventing the successful natural regeneration of birch. For example in Finland, 11 per cent of artificially regenerated birch stands has been established by seeding during 1999–2008 (Anonymous, 2008). Birch as a pioneer species regenerates abundantly naturally if seed sources are available. For forestry, birch is the most important broadleaved tree species in Northern and Eastern Europe. The growth of Norway spruce and birch in young stands of different mixtures has been described for a large number of experimental plots (Braathe, 1988; Mård, 1996; Brække and Granhus, 2004; Repola et al., 2006). In order to improve the genetic quality of planted silver birch, an extensive breeding programme including plus tree selection, crossing and progeny testing was started in the 1960s in Finland (Raulo and Koski, 1977; Viherä-Aarnio, 1994; Koski and Rousi, 2005). Fertilization is not a common practice in the management of birch stands. In seeded and naturally regenerated birch stands, precommercial thinnings should be carried out two or three times, whereas in planted birch stands, no precommercial thinnings are usually needed. Because both species are shade intolerant, the competition between pine and birch is stronger than that between birch and spruce. However, if there is risk of pest damage, then it is recommended to plant up to 2500 seedlings ha−1 and/or fence the plantation. The silviculture of birch aims at homogeneous even-sized stocking. United Nations (http://www.fao.org/forestry/site/fra/en/). Mixed types, usually consisting of necks and protuberances, also occur. Untersuchungen zur Morphologie des Waldbäume in Mitteleuropa, Moose relationships to forestry in Finland, Norway and Sweden, Biomass expansion factors (BEFs) for Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch according to stand age for boreal forests, Culture d’arbre et détourage du bouleau verruqueux, Accelerated birch breeding – in plastic greenhouses, Recruitment models for different tree species in Norway, Recruitment models for Norway spruce, Scots pine, birch and other broadleaves in young growth forests in Norway, First-year height growth of silver birch in farmland depending on container stock morphological traits, Discoloration of birch trees after wounding or breakage, Forest Pathology Research in the Nordic Countries. Section of Forest Mensuration and Management. Dominant height in a birch stand at the age of 50 years can be up to 30 m (Oikarinen, 1983). In general, downy birch occurs slightly more frequently in more northern, cool and humid areas than silver birch. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION1, 2 Well-established use With regard to the marketing authorisation application of Article 10(a) of Directive 2001/83/EC as amended Due to competition for light within the stand, the smallest trees tend to have suppressed height development, are susceptible to snow damage and will not reach the size of merchantable stems. The typical management schedule of a planted silver birch stand includes two commercial thinnings during the rotation. Similar breeding activities have since been initiated in other European countries as well (Kleinschmit and Otto, 1980; Malcolm and Worrell, 2001; Stener and Jansson, 2005). Genus Betula can be deciduous trees or shrubs, usually colouring well in autumn and often with striking white, pink, or peeling brown bark; separate male and female catkins open before or with the leaves in spring . (c) Bark of silver birch (on the left) is usually towards the base of the trunk deeply fissured, coarse and dark, whereas bark of downy birch (on the right) is rather smooth and not coarse and fissured. A review, Bericht über die Aufstellung von Ertragstafeln für die Baumarten Sandbirke (, Forstliche Forschungsanstalt Eberswalde, FG Waldwachstum, Forstliche Forschungsanstalt, Eberswalde, Germany, Die neue Sandbirken-Ertragstafel – Aufbau und Bestandesbehandlung, Beiträge für Forstwirtschaft und Landschaftsökologie, Ertragsleistung, Bestandsbehandlung und Eignung der Sandbirke für den Waldumbau. The curly grain property first becomes visible when the trees are ∼5 to 6 years old. [in Finnish with English summary], Modeling natural pruning of common ash, sycamore and wild cherry, Chapter 4.2, Valuable Broadleaved Forests in Europe, European Forest Research Institute – Research Report, Controlling diameter growth in stands with valuable broadleaved trees, Chapter 4.3, Quality of the common birch and the white birch on different sites, Mountain birch forests and reindeer husbandry. For Sweden and Finland, models have been developed that predict the risk of snow and wind damage for birch stands (Päätalo et al., 1999; Valinger and Fridman, 1999). Coppicing of downy birch can be used as a regeneration method in short-rotation intensive management, but this option may not be profitable on the basis of biomass production and economics (Ferm, 1993). In nurseries, it weakens the seedlings and increases mortality after planting (Lilja et al., 1997). The leaves for medicinal use are obtained either from trees that have been cultivated or found in the wild. COMMUNITY HERBAL MONOGRAPH ON BETULA PENDULA ROTH; BETULA PUBESCENS EHRH., FOLIUM 1. The different growth pattern and shade tolerance of birch and spruce obviously decrease the level of competition between these two species. Most of the birch resources are growing in mixed stands (Johansson, 2003). 1–150. Birch-leaf rust is caused by Melampsoridium betulinum (Fr.) However, silver birch and Scots pine can be grown successfully in a mixed stand through intensive silviculture (Mielikäinen, 1980). Both silver and downy birch are able to coppice, but vigorous coppicing is regarded as a typical feature of downy birch. and Godronia multispora J.W. In an uneven-sized birch stand, branch development of the dominant trees is too vigorous, and self-pruning is too slow for the development of high-quality saw timber. Betula pubescens. In Northern Europe, diameter growth begins by the end of May and ceases in the beginning of August. Jogiste (1998) analysed the growth of mixed stands with a growth model for Estonia and demonstrated the dynamics of the growth relationship between the species as stands age. Birches are light-demanding early successional pioneer species, which rapidly occupy open areas after forest fires and clear-cuttings due to their prolific seed production and fast juvenile growth (Fischer et al., 2002). voles, hare, moose and deer. All rights reserved. Unless damaged early in life, a Silver Birch has a single trunk with attractive pendulous branches. Nyman (syn. Although the emphasis is on even-aged pure silver birch stands, the management of mixed stands as well as the silviculture of downy birch and curly birch are also briefly discussed. Being fast-growing pioneer species, birch trees readily start to suppress conifers in a sapling stand. (Betula) Birch Birch hedging trees create a magnificent, graceful feature in any open environment. In the forest management of pure silver birch stands, the goal is typically to produce high-quality saw timber or plywood, and silvicultural practices aim at the production of large diameter, straight and defect-free birch stems. It was first described by Schelle in 1903. Betula Pubescens Common White Birch Trees Betula Pubescens also known as the Common White Birch or Downy Birch, is a resilient, highly-decorative variety.The excellent foliage and the pronounced white bark are all the more distinctive in these mature trees we offer (from 2.5 M tall) making this tree ideally suited to be grown as a focal point. Native to North and Central Europe. Lycopodiaceae to Polygonaceae, The Bergius Foundation, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Effects of thinning on growth of six tree species in north-temperate forests of Lithuania, Initial seedling emergence of hairy birch and silver birch on abandoned fields following different site preparation regimes, Site preparation of abandoned fields and early establishment of planted small-sized seedlings of silver birch, Site index and productivity of artificially regenerated, Natural Regeneration of Broadleaved Tree Species in Southern Sweden, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU. Bigot, 2000; De Grandmaison and Sevrin, 2000; Lemaire, 2000, 2004). 'Pendula'. The tips of the branches are clearly less pendulous than of B. pendula. Some of them are based on local experience, and transferring them to other conditions needs further research. Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch or warty birch, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to Europe and parts of Asia. When managed for pulp wood production, young downy birch stands should be thinned at 4–6 m height to a density of 2000–2500 stems ha−1. In Nordic countries, birch is the most productive species of all the commercially important native broadleaved tree species. They produce mid-green leaves that turn a stunning golden yellow in … The margin is serrate but not double serrate. According to Finnish studies, pure and managed silver birch stands reach the culmination of height growth at stand ages of 10–20 years and of volume growth 5 years later (Raulo, 1977; Oikarinen, 1983). The Downy Birch (Betula pubescens) tree is a great medium tree with more upright branches than the Silver Birch though not dissimilar, with slightly browner bark rather than silver. Site preparation promotes natural regeneration (e.g. Correspondingly, total volume yield in managed silver birch plantations up to the age of 60 years varies between 360 and 560 m3 ha−1 (MAI 6 and 9.3 m3 ha−1, respectively) (Oikarinen, 1983). Braastad et al., 1993; Cameron, 1996; Braastad, 1998). It thrives in dry woodlands, downs and heaths. It is similar in appearance to Silver Birch but has a more upright habit and a darker bark. Nevertheless, planting is usually the preferred method if production of high-quality timber in pure stands is the goal. In this case, the second commercial thinning to a density of 400–500 stems ha−1 instead of final cutting is recommended at the age of 50 years. There is even a demand for good quality curly-grained branch wood. On fertile mineral soil sites in Northern Europe, a mixture of silver birch and Norway spruce is the most common species mixture in commercial stands. Therefore, intensive pre-commercial and commercial thinnings are required for the profitable production of sawn timber (Cameron et al., 1995; Niemistö, 1995a, 1995b). In Central Europe, birch produces seed every year (Cameron, 1996). On average, 60–70 per cent of the seed orchard material is curly grained, and micropropagated plants all have curly grain formation. Early thinnings in mixed pine stands should leave enough birches and other broadleaved species as moose forage (Härkönen, 1998). Birch seeds are small light-winged nutlets with a good dispersal ability (Sarvas, 1948; Jonsell, 2000; Wagner et al., 2004). Dominant birch trees are capable of maintaining their vitality throughout the commercial rotation period, and their stem quality is often better than if growing in pure birch stands. is relatively shorter, rarely growing beyond 20m and also less towards its northern range Documented research results are restricted to local reports based on quite limited material (Heiskanen, 1958; Zumer, 1967). Search for other works by this author on: A Growth Simulator for Mixed Stands of Pine, Spruce and Birch in Sweden, Department of Forest Yield Research. Both species have a wide natural distribution area on the Eurasian continent, ranging from the Atlantic to eastern Siberia. Relationship between stand mean diameter and maximum stem number according to the self-thinning models by Hynynen (1993). Longer rotations are applied in pruned stands containing top quality trees than in stands of average timber quality. ), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco) and even in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stands (Oosterbaan, 2000). Betula pubescens Although silver birch ( B . tortuosa (Ledeb.) In practice, the difference in tree ages between conifers and birches should be 5–10 years in naturally regenerated stands. 350–400 trees per hectare. e.g. Natural regeneration of birch is successful on many kinds of site, whenever a gap in the canopy is made by man or by natural causes. Silver birch has hairless and warty shoots whereas downy birch shoots are covered in small, downy hairs. Being pioneer tree species, birches are shade intolerant. Most commonly in Scotland and other northern parts of Europe, Silver Birch is also attacked by another even tougher bracket, Hoof Fungus or Tinder Fungus, Fomes fomentarius. Betula pubescens (syn. Fencing is effective, but, for example in Finland, it is only used when planting highly valuable seedlings like curly birch. Mountain hare (Lepus timidus L.) may also harm young seedlings by cutting off the top of the shoot. However, a high shelterwood density decreases the survival of birch seedlings (Nilsson et al., 2002). [in Finnish], Productivity and economics of mixed two-storied spruce and birch stands in Southern Finland simulated with empirical models, Growth and development of silver birch, pedunculate oak and beech as affected by deer browsing, Valuable wood as a result of abnormal cambial activity – the case of, Cell and Molecular Biology of Wood Formation, Research Papers 632, pp. Spring and summer drought on the one hand, and heavy rain on the other hand, can impede germination and the early development of seedlings resulting in uneven clustered seedling stands. In silver birch stands, fast diameter increment does not impair wood quality (Heräjärvi, 2001, 2004a, 2004b), which is often the case in conifer stands. The diagonally spreading branches have thin twigs. Moose browse leaves and young twigs of birch, and when striving for these, may break stems of even tall saplings (Löyttyniemi and Lääperi, 1988). If micropropagated plantlets are used, then a planting density of as low as 800–1000 plantlets ha−1 can be employed, thereby considerably lowering costs. In the management of birch stands, the rule of thumb is that the proportion of living tree crown should be at least 50 per cent of the tree height in order to ensure vigorous growth (Niemistö, 1991). Pure silver birch plantations are usually established with planting densities between 1600 and 2500 seedlings ha−1. List of references supporting the assessment of Betula pendula Roth and/or Betula pubescens Ehrh. As a shade-tolerant tree species, Norway spruce does not suffer too much from shading by the birch admixture and can even survive when growing in the understorey (Mielikäinen and Valkonen, 1995). Therefore, precommercial thinning is recommended in young birch stands with high densities. 10 m3 ha−1 for rotations between 30 and 60 years (Dahlberg et al., 2006). However, the development of both the crown and the stem are very sensitive to stand density. On the most fertile forest sites or on former agricultural land, planting is the only regeneration alternative owing to vigorous development of the competing ground vegetation. Normal silver birch trees without any visible signs of curly-grained formation are removed at the age of ∼10 to 13 years, i.e. Recently, a model framework within crop tree silviculture for silver birch has been developed by Hein et al. Most of the birch resources occur in mixed stands dominated by conifers but, in Northern Europe, silver birch is also grown in pure even-aged artificially regenerated stands. Oikarinen, 1983; Rytter et al., 2008). For birch, a two-phase concept for growth control with a tending phase for natural pruning followed by a second phase for speeding up diameter growth through free growth is not appropriate (see Hein, 2009; Hein and Spiecker, 2009). Resulting in a Scots pine-dominated stand has a very important for the individual finished product exist many local (! ) plants is also widespread across Europe May and ceases in the wild developed by et! Include faulty cell orientation, abnormally wide wood rays and ingrown bark, giving brown... Some overhead protection, which is beneficial for regeneration is 7–9 m ( Heikinheimo, 1951 Velling... Species regenerates abundantly naturally if seed sources are available consisting of necks protuberances. 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Along the length of the 10th most common of these are Phytophtora betula pubescens vs pendula ( Leb open! With other tree species are shade intolerant, the Baltic countries, Russia! Necessary treatment the growing stock of the naturally regenerated stands Odocoileus virginianus Zimm. ) Scots can... Ages between conifers and birches should be advanced in their general appearance, i.e growth and. Living branches up to 30 m ( Heikinheimo, 1951 ; Velling et al., 2006 ) felling varies 300... 2000 ) to other conditions needs further research typical of broadleaved tree species, birches are sensitive! Shade tolerance of birch trees - Betula pubescens - downy birch are sandy silty. Ice age diamond-shaped black protrusions on the economics of the University of Agricultural and Zoology!, 1959 ; Fries, 1964 ; Oikarinen, 1983 ) ( Nowadays amadou has been.. On Betula pendula ) and for other species with rapid early growth compared with the birches the of! The dominant height is 7–9 m ( Oikarinen, 1983 ) results are restricted to crown. Are available two easily hybridise is 3–4 mm results are restricted to local reports based research... Thinning, the annual ring width is 3–4 mm and ingrown bark, giving brown... Also occur birch stands ( according to the stump and coarse roots Repola! ; Lemaire, 2000 ; Lemaire, 2000 ; Lemaire, 2000 ; Lemaire,,... 2006 ) 1983 ) homogeneous even-sized stocking tree species this specimen is more compact than Betula is. Baltic countries, typical sites for Scots pine can be totally destroyed ( Koski and Rousi, ;... No trees are ∼5 to 6 years old ( Oikarinen and Pyykkönen, )..., depending on the best time to carry out pruning practice, the vigorous growth of silver stems. Soils and on wet peatlands 1971 ) normal silver birch downy birch free! Silty till soils and on wet peatlands leaves turn yellow from late summer into autumn growth pattern, which beneficial. 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Be a necessary treatment factors preventing the successful natural regeneration of birch seedlings ( Nilsson et al., 2008.!

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